Papers 1990 to 1999

A Decade of Commercial Property Development
Michael J. Cassidy BA, MBA
29 May 1990
The enormous expansion of commercial property development in the City 1979-1989, and the background of economic factors and planning policy in the City which assisted it.
The City Parochial Foundation – the First 100 Years
Rosemary Humphrays
31 July 1990
The history, constitution and activities of the City Parochial Foundation since the City of London Parochial Charities Act 1883.
800 Years and All That
Alderman Sir Christopher Collett GBE, MA, D.Sc.
28 October 1990
The organisation and activities involved in celebrating  the 800th anniversary of the Mayoralty of the City of London , from the personal recollections of the author, including the various arguments concerning the exact date of the foundation of the Mayoralty and a brief note of celebrations for the 700th anniversary in 1889.
The Evolution of the Barbican Centre
John S. Henderson OBE, Deputy
29 April 1991
The planning and development of the Barbican Centre from 1955, including alternative schemes and suggestions and overcoming the many difficulties which affected the project.
The History of Chartered Accountants in the City
Alderman Brian Jenkins MA
29 July 1991
As per title, prefaced by anecdotes ridiculing the profession, the change in attitude to chartered accountants and a brief history of the Institute of Chartered Accountants from the late 19th century, and current attacks on the profession and its possible future.
The Cripplegate Foundation 1891-1991 (100 Not Out!)
Wallis G.G. Hunt
28 October 1991
History, from the granting of its Scheme in 1891 (Cripplegate was one of the 5 parishes excluded from the City of London Parochial Charities Act 1883), concentrating mainly on the buildings, but with some information about grant-making policy and grants made in recent years.
The Mansion House 1930-1993
Norman H. Harding
30 March 1992
Details of the several phases of the major Mansion House refurbishment during the 1980s up to 1992, based on the personal recollections of the author, citing differences of opinions and rejected suggestions from various Lord Mayors and others, costs and difficulties affecting parts of the project, and various policy decisions.
Lord Mayors of London and the Baronetcy
Alderman Sir Robin Gillett GBE, RD, D.Sc., RNR
29 June 1992
Brief background to James I’s foundation of the rank of Baronet and the pre-Restoration system of high entry fines for recipients; the growth of the custom of creating the Lord Mayor a Baronet, and the subsequent recognition of the office by the award of the GBE instead; instances of members of the same family serving the office of Lord Mayor; some colourful Baronets, including Lord Mayors (Vyner, Watson, Wood, Key).
The Bishopsgate Institute
Alderman Michael Oliver
30 November 1992
History, from the granting of its Scheme in 1891 (St Botolph’s Bishopsgate was one of the 5 parishes excluded from the City of London Parochial Charities Act 1883), giving information on the buildings, foundation by the Rev. William Rogers, Rector of St Botolph’s, current day-to-day work, the Library; current plans for extension.
Junius and the City
Dr James Cope
29 March 1993
The Junius letters published in The Public Advertiser 1768-1772; their support for John Wilkes and Parliamentary reform; George III’s system of government; the City’s remonstrances to George III in 1770; the election of Alderman Nash to the Mayoralty in 1771; the impact of Junius’s letters on Wilkes’s cause and the development of the democratic movement; the identity of Junius (Sir Philip Francis?).
The City Police
H. Wimburn S. Horlock MA, Deputy
29 November 1993
Policing in the City from Norman times; watch and ward; creation of first City Day Force after the Gordon Riots of 1784; Metropolitan Police Act 1829; City of London Police Act 1839; Commissioners; a few significant dates in City Police history; modern-day policing.
The Tithes of the Parish of St Sepulchre, Holborn
Wallis G.G. Hunt
31 January 1994
Brief history of tithes generally; tithes and payments in lieu in the City under Acts of Parliament of 1667 and 1804; extinguishing of such payments under Act of 1947 and the substitution of the tithe part of the General Rate; the complexities of tithe payments in St Sepulchre (divided between the City and Middlesex); tithe still collectable in the parish, uniquely amongst English parishes (with a few towns having house rates in lieu of tithes).
Fleet Street: the Place and the Concept
Joyce C. Nash, Deputy
31 May 1994
History of the physical Street; printing in Fleet Street since 1500 and the growth of the national press there; “Old Spanish Customs” and Rupert Murdoch’s move to “Fortress Wapping” and the decline of printing in Fleet Street itself.
Put Not Your Trust in Princes: the Relationship Between the City and the Tower 1066-1321
A.P.W. MacLellan
31 October 1994
The City and the Norman Conquest; the building of the Tower of London; Constables of the Tower and their jurisdiction over the Jews in the City; brief summary of the City’s relationship with the Crown 1066-1321.
London’s Firefighters: Their Origins and Development
C. Douglas Woodward CBE, Deputy
30 Jan uary1995
Fire-fighting in ancient Rome; in England from 872; in the City from 1066; equipment and ordinances; the Fire of London, the growth of insurance and a more organised fire-fighting system; amalgamation of insurance companies’ fire brigades in 1832 and appointment of James Braidwood to run it; fires at Houses of Parliament in 1834, Royal Exchange in 1838, Tower of London Armoury in 1841, Tooley Street Fire in 1861; foundation and development of Metropolitan Fire Brigade in 1865.
The History of the Common Council
Geoffrey W. Rowley CBE, DCL, FIPM
22 May 1995
Evolution of Common Council from Folkmoot through Court of Husting; evolution of the great congregation into Common Hall;  Common Council’s assumption of “legislative” functions during 14th century; changing balance of power between Common Council, Common Hall and Court of Aldermen during 18th century; anecdotes of a few famous Common Council events, including Charles I’s failure to apprehend the 5 Parliamentarians in 1642.
Sir Horace Jones 1819-1887: Architect and Surveyor to the Corporation of London
Stanley Keith Knowles
30 October 1995
Brief biography of Jones; family; training as an architect; travel and study in Europe; in business on own account 1843-1864; work for the RIBA; projects, including Cardiff Town Hall, Caversham Park near Reading, Surrey Music Hall in Walworth, many office buildings and department stores in London; as Architect and Surveyor to the Corporation of London 1864- including his work on City Markets, police stations, Guildhall, City of London Lunatic Asylum, Guildhall Library and Museum, Tower Bridge and Guildhall School of Music; knighthood. Appendix quoting A.G. Temple Guildhall Memories (1918), pp. 72-73 about Jones.
[Acknowledgements to Jennifer M Freeman’s thesis on Sir Horace Jones, RIBA Library, Keeper of Maps and Prints at Guildhall Library and CLRO]
Dictum Meum Pactum: The Stock Exchange 1929-1986
R.D.K. Edwards JP, Deputy
29 April 1996
Local colour in Throgmorton Street in the 1950s-1960s and its silence since October 1986 (the Big Bang); 400 years of history of joint stock companies, including the Muscovy Company; funding and share issue; foundation of Stock Exchange in 1773; turmoil of 1st 3 decades of 20th century due to mining booms, WW1, General Strike, Wall Street Crash; work of brokers, jobbers and Blue Buttons; nicknames, humour and characters of the old Exchange; move to new Exchange and admission of women in 1973; post-WW2 company amalgamations and the rise of professionalism; the 1960s and 1970s; the move to offices after the abolition of exchange controls in 1979, introduction of computerised clearing system Talisman and other changes in working practices; the end of the exclusivity of the Stock Exchange in 1986.
The Influence of the Huguenots on the City of London
Alderman Michael Savory
23 September 1996
Background of Huguenot migrations especially from France and the Low Countries to British Isles in mid-16th century and after revocation of Edict of Nantes in 1685; skills and numbers of Huguenots in London; their rapid integration within 2 generations; Spitalfields silk-weavers; Huguenot innovations, inventions and creativity; the Church; some GHA Huguenots.
Christ’s Hospital – Some Housey Tales Fights and Feuds
Richard Saunders, Deputy
24 February 1997
Close historical links between the Corporation and Christ’s Hospital; the School’s independent spirit; its appropriation of the Spital Sermon and a tiff between School and Corporation over the Sermon in the mid-19th century; problems with money and administration 16th-18th centuries; Christ’s Hospital’s sealing of the Carmen’s cars 1582-1838; anecdotes about Christ’s Hospital.
Care of the Children: the Aldermen and the Orphans
Betty R. Masters OBE, BA, FSA
23 June 1997
The Custom of London since the Middle Ages regarding the care of Freemen’s under-age orphans and inheritance of personal property of a City Freeman, with examples; the Aldermen’s strict control over the marriage of orphans, with examples; increase in volume of orphanage business and deposit of orphans’ inheritances in the Chamber of London at interest from the mid-16th century; development of the Court of Orphans under the Common Serjeant and orphans’ inventories; City’s financial problems due to its inability to meet the interest on its outstanding debt from 1681; establishment of the Orphans’ Fund by Act of Parliament of 1694.
The Remembrancer in Russia: the Fletcher Embassy to Moscow in 1588-89
James R. Sewell MA, FSA
27 October 1997
Brief biography of Dr Giles Fletcher (c. 1548-1611, and uncle of the dramatist John Fletcher), who was appointed City Remembrancer at the request of Queen Elizabeth I in 1586; Fletcher and Saltonstall’s ambassadorial mission with the Hanse concerning custom duties on English imports in 1587; Fletcher’s appointment as ambassador to Russia in 1588 and the background to Anglo-Russian trade in the 16th century; Fletcher’s difficulties in Moscow; his return and the writing of his important and controversial book Of the Russe Common Wealth in 1591 (translations of which were still banned in Russia in 1848); the remainder of Fletcher’s career as Remembrancer.
A Private Sector Underground for London – Return of the Ghost of Charles Yerkes (paper not available)
Deputy M.J. Cassidy BA, MBA
23 February 1998
Commuting to work; the development of the underground railway in London; colourful life and background of Charles Tyson Yerkes, an American, formerly convicted and jailed for embezzlement in Philadelphia, ousted from Chicago for corruption of councillors concerning the trolley car franchise; Yerke’s acquisition of interests in the London Underground and his electrification of the system, building the power station at Lots Road; unprofitablility of the operation; Yerkes’s death and discovery of his debts; competition in the form of petrol-driven buses from 1906.
The 100th Livery Company: How it Came About
Alderman Sir Brian Jenkins GBE
29 June 1998
The Information Technologists’ Company; 50 years of stored-programme computers; IT Year in 1982, the first meeting of Bernard Harty and Alan Benjamin, and their subsequent idea for an IT Livery Company in 1985; City Company status and the work of the new Company; Livery status in 1992 as the 100th Company; continuing work, including the promotion of IT in the City under the PORT initiative, apprenticeship scheme and use of panels for charitable work.
The Napoleonic Wars, 1803-1814: the Defences of S.E. England
Gordon R.A. Wixley CBE, TD, DL
26 November 1998
As per title, with background to Napoleon’s invasion plans, and including information on the Chelmsford Army camp, entrenchments for the protection of London, plans for flooding Romney Marshes and the construction of the Royal Military Canal, the construction of Martello Towers
Sir John Cass and His Foundation
Geoffrey C.H. Lawson
29 March 1999
Cass’s and his father’s with the Jacobite cause in the 1690s, his establishment of a charity school in Portsoken 1709-1711 to ingratiate himself with electors in his efforts 1701-1711 to become Alderman of Portsoken, his Tory-Anglican politics, unpopularity with the Court of Aldermen, election as an MP for London 1710-1715, the complications around proving his 1718 final will (proved 1748) and the establishment of the Sir John Cass Foundation in 1748, his statue in the Guildhall Art Gallery and the Lord Mayor’s role in the school’s annual Founder’s Day service each February.
The Royal Exchange
Anthony Moss MA
7 June 1999
The Antwerp Bourse in the early 16th century and its influence on Sir Richard Gresham and his son Sir Thomas, who built the Royal Exchange 1566-69; its naming by Queen Elizabeth I in 1571; its operation and trades using it (especially insurance); destruction in 1666 and 1838 and subsequent rebuilding; grand opening in 1842 and modern uses.
[Acknowledgements to London Topographical Society and Dr Ann Saunders]
The City of London Imperial Volunteers [C.I.V.]
Deputy John Holland CBE, JP, DL
29 November 1999
Background of the 1st (1880-81) and 2nd (1899-1902) Boer Wars; the extremely rapid formation of the City Imperial Volunteers in the City of London Dec 1899-Jan 1900 under the active management of the Lord Mayor, Alfred Newton; the CIV’s action and return to England in October 1900; the end of the War and excerpts from  Winston Churchill’s maiden speech in the House of Commons on the subject.